Time Capsule Dates of 1944, one of the Anniversary years of the Second World War.
Nazi Germany had conquered most of Europe and North Africa during the early days of WW II, however, things changed by 1944. The following is taken from the book A Toast For You and Me, America's Participation, Sacrifice and Victory, vol 7, which is available.
May 31 U.S 36th Inf Div seize key radio outpost near Monte Artemisio to help pierce Caesare Line.
June 2First Allied shuttle mission from Italy to the Ukraine is conducted; the three new American bases are at Poltava, Morgorod, and Piryatin. Persian Gulf Command U.S. assistance for the other side of the world.
L audio, supply line to Italian Front; R audio, supplies for Russian Front through the Persian Gulf Command.
June 3OPA begins investigation of hotel over-pricing violations nationwide. A message at 4:39 p.m. slips out to U.S. and Latin American hemispheres on an AP teletype from London: Flash! Eisenhower’ headquarters announces Allied landings in France (it is false news.) Over 1000 Allied bombers raid Calais, Boulogne, the Chartres airport and n.w. France by daylight.
June 4Rome falls to the Allies, and is the first European war capital liberated by the Allies. On initiative action by Capt. Daniel Gallery on board the USS Guadalcanal, U-505 is captured 150 miles west of Cape Blanco, French West Africa, U-505’s codebooks and an enigma are captured; the U-boat is the only one captured by a U.S. vessel in WW II. The capture of the U-505 was one of the best kept secrets of WW II. General Eisenhower postpones D-Day by 24 hours. ETO press release publicly proclaims the oil offensive. All through Sunday, June 4, the weather over England was terryfying as a wild storm tossed the waters and the rain fell and the winds grew in fury.
June 5Gen. George C Marshall receives the Order of Suvorov, First Class, of the Soviet Union. B-29’s fly from China.
5 a.m. Sky trains draped in black camouflage begin landing, more than 400, in towed lines of 50 per train. Some 3,500 gliders would be overall utilized by the Allies.
5:15 a.m. Field Marshal von Rundstedt comes to the conclusion the parachute drops are a prelude to a beach-landing, but no one in Berlin appreciates his orders. On his own secretly orders the 12th SS and the Panzer Lehr to the coast.
by 6 a.m. German naval command warns the 7th Army HQ in Le Mans, France, that for over an hour eerie radar blimps have been reported and are mounting in both the Pas de Calais and Normandy areas. Hitler’s HQ is warned via naval channels but, no one dares to wake up Der Fuehrer about the impending troubles.
6:50 a.m. The first 3,000 of the U.S. 1st Army gather towards the French coast. In approximately 8 short mins, sunrise.
7 a.m. People on the German-occupied coast of Normandy that live within 21.7 miles of any part of the coast are warned repeatedly by the BBC to evacuate.
7:30 a.m. American feet and hands begin touching French soil as the 16th and 116th Regimental Combat teams on Omaha and the 8th Inf Regiment on Utah touch; the American invasion has landed on schedule. Heavy enemy artillery and machine gun fire on Omaha. On Utah minimal opposition; 26 out of 30 first wave tanks reach the beach. Altogether 40 landing craft attempt the assault waves ashore.
8 a.m. German barriers are above water; it is low tide on Omaha, LCM’s and LCI’s pictured overturned in ocean area at Omaha Beach. LCVP’s loaded with GI’s circle aimlessly, because the navy managing the boats can not find the gaps which they had been told would be blown in the barriers. They had not been blown because many demo experts were either killed or landed on the wrong sector; the marker poles that came in initially were to be placed to guide landing craft through the gaps were destroyed when the boat carrying them was hit by German fire. LC doors are opened prematurely. Tanks are let out. The rough waters slap the little landing craft like if they were nothing. The rough waters rip the air inflated canvas donuts covering amphibian tanks. These special Sherman tanks were sealed watertight. The tank crews had oxygen masks with ten minutes’ supply of oxygen. Of the first 32 launched, 30 become inundated. Sands from the higher elevated dunes to the bluffs are all mined. The Germans are holed in the bluffs, and from one high church tower, with telescopic binoculars, Germans are able to pinpoint fire. Along with the troops are brave American reporters and cameramen, 28 scattered in all: Don Whitehead, Associated Press; John O'Reilly, New York Herald Tribune; Jack Thompson, Chicago Tribune; John MacVane, NBC; Bob Capa, Life Magazine; photographer Bert Brandt, Acme Newspictures; Charles Wertenbaker, Life Magazine; Tommy Grandin, the Blue Network, foretunner to ABC; Richard Stokes, St. Louis Post Dispatch; Warren Kenneth, Newark News; Lou Azrael, Baltimore News Post; Tom Treanor, Los Angeles Times; and Ernie Pyle were at Omaha. On Utah Beach were Larry SeSueur, CBS; Bob Dunnett, BBC; Henry Gorrell, United Press; Clark Lee, INS; Bill Stoneman, Chicago Daily News; Harold Austin, Sydney Morning Herald; and Bob Landry, Life photographer. Airborne reporters were Will Walton, Time Magazine; Phil Bucknell, Stars and Stripes (who broke his leg near Sainte Mere-Eglise) and Wright Bryan of NBC. Colleague Peter Paris, Yank correspondent, was on Omaha; he was hit by a bomb and died instantly. ABC’s George Hicks was on board the ship that also had Pyle and General Bradley. It was the general’s command ship, and he Hick’s made a famous recording on June 6, at 7:20 that became the only usable recording from the invasion fleet, however, it was not heard till midnight.
8:30 a.m. After a 2 hour naval and air bombardment, in their sector from 7 miles out, British and Canadian assault troops begin to land on Normandy. Thirty-one of 40 tanks reach Sword Beach. Six out of 40 Royal Marine tanks make it ashore. Twenty out of 24 landing craft in the Canadian secto are lost. All key exits on Utah are secured by U.S. paratroopers.
9:20 a.m. General Bradley receives a radio signal from Colonel Talley, U.S. Deputy Chief of Staff V Corps: Such vehicles and armor as have reached the beach cannot advance any further while the German guns remain intact. They have to be silenced at any cost. U.S. and British Navies begin firing their superguns.
9:25 a.m. The entire Nazi controlled Fr radio network goes off the air.
9:45 a.m. It is known the U.S. VII Corps had landed 2000 yards south of their original sector on Utah encountering light enemy opposition. Tiny German crawling electronic weapons that resemble midget tanks, try to blow up Yanks on Utah, but are dismantled. On Omah nothing is a piece of cake. Explosions are rampant. LCT’s of the 743rd Tank Battalion landed eight DD tanks which open fire on the Vierville stronghold. Bridge on the Dives river secured by British paratroops. Paratroopers of the 101st Airborne which are inland holding the vital sea locks at La Barquette (near Carentan.) The cruiser USS Quincy responds with helpful shore work silencing the enemy. All through the day, in the Norman fields, pockets of the 91st German Division try cutting various lines of the 82nd. However, the 82nd meets and holds the front in the wilderness. From the sea, U.S Rangers from the U.S. 2nd Ranger Battalion scale the lime cliffs at Pointe du Hoc. Germans rolled boulders over them, tip over ladders and offer grenades and fierce gunfire.
10:15 a.m. It is one nightmare on Omaha as the majority of soldiers and naval demo squads are pinned dowm by machine gun and overfalling mortar bombs. All but one howitzer of the 111 Field Artillery Battalion is destroyed or sunk. Omaha appears in peril. Many buldozers are blown up. A few of the 16 Regiment, 1st Infantry Division who came in too far east, perceive an opening farther eastward. Their CO’s have the men move away from the open heights of Fox Green towards the opening, a lightly defended ravine. Clearing it, the men scoot through and up for the plateau.
10:32 a.m. An American announcer: “This is Supreme headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force. In a moment you will hear the Supreme comnmander, General Dwight D. Eisenhower.” Eisenhower and the Great Crusade message.
11 a.m. Hitler is awakened, commences breakfast, far way.
By 12 Noon
French village Vierville is cleared by U.S. 5th Ranger Battalion and 116 Inf Regiment.
12:20 The first barage balloon was floating in the breeze at H-plus 225 minutes. Inland, the first yards of metal netting are laid on the sand to help the vehicles drive off the beach. German counterattack at Vierville repelled by the advance “remnants” of the U.S. 1st Battalion, 116 Regiment.
1:15 p.m. All five beaches extremely packed with all maner of humanity and machine. At Omaha, GI’s of the 1st and 29th Divisions are slowly moving inland, but most are still trapped. Operations are hampered by the unexpectedly quick rise of tide. On Sword, Juno and Gold, English scientific inventions looking like tanks are used to the utmost. These armored vehicles build for D-Day and as yet unknown to the enemy. Evacuation is contemplated by Gerneral Omar Bradley. Over six thousand airborne are roving in France, some are lost in an astounding area some 25 miles by 15. At Utah, the beach is clear.
by 2:15 p.m. Naval destroyers have come dangerously close to shore. Dan Whitehead American reporter wrote, “We saw the destroyers come racing toward the beach and swing broadside, exploding a chunk of concrete from the right of the blockhouse. Another nicked the top. A third ripped off a corner. And then the fourth shell smashed into the gunpoint to silence the weapon.” Army engineers completed blasting a hole which is large enough for a sherman tank. With the word passed along, many GI’s including tanks began escaping through.
4:40 p.m. Nazi forces are still puzzled by continuous radar (phony) movement in the Pas de Calais a region, however, the Panzer Lehr and 12 SS tank divisions are released by Hitler. The 18th Regimental Combat Team of the 1st Div is ashore. The deadlock at Omaha is broken. No live news transmission. Voice broadcasts began only on June 16, relayed to N.Y. via London. On D+1, Bert Brandt brought his photos to London. Of all the special radio and mikes that were supposed to have landed on Omaha, all were lost at sea. John MacVane, NBC found a radio for a broadcast and around 1 a.m. next day did a 15 min talk, but nobody picked it up.
6 p.m. The strongest and most fully equipped German armor division on the Western front is ordered out of its bivouac immediately around Paris, toward Caen; in broad daylight Allied fighter bombers attack it. An umbrella of 10,585 friendly sorties was provided. Not one allied plane fell as a result of the Luftwaffe. At least 49,000 Americans had been landed by nightfall. By midnight, Allied armies had over 130,000 troops in France. Eight hundred and thirty-two injured were evacuated from France the first day; the remainder laid stretched behind cover. By nightfall, 1465 Americans were dead.
New radar ground control is first used in Normandy (Microwave Early Warning, MEW). U.S. 8th A.F. in England reaches peak strength; over 200,000 men, 40 1/2 Heavy Bomb Groups, 15 Fighter Groups, and 2 Photo-Recon Groups. A sky train fifty miles long helps resupply Allied troops on Normandy; 2,876,000 are part of the entire D-Day Allied invasion. Blood donors stampede into Red Cross in New York City (Manhattan and Brooklyn) producing an increase of 300% in appointments over the normal.
June 7American troops expand toward Quineville and St Mére Eglise, in the ladder throw back major German counterattack.
June 8American and British troops make contact at Port-en-Bessin. Two U.S. beaches link up at Isigny. John MacVane, NBC tried another broadcast from Omaha Beach, timing it to coincide with NBC’s morning broadcast. Everybody in the NBC London office was surprised by his report from the Front. One of the censors Roy Trouncer exclaimed, “We’re getting John from the beachhead. It’s coming in fine”, and it was sent to an army transmitter. A big U.S. Army relay transmitter was located in London. It was to pick up official transmissions from the BBC, and CBS and NBC affiliates and boost them them on to the networks in New York. But the first broadcast from Normandy was not to be. Army Signal Corps officials in London stopped the re-transmittal because it was not official. Nobody outside the BBC and the Army Signal Corps ever heard it. Luftwaffe conducts small raid over Britain; the first since D-Day.
June 9Allied air forces operate from France.
June 1082nd Airborne captures Mentebourg rail station. U.S. reach St-Lô Bayeux highway. Soviet 21st Army attacks Finland.
June 11U.S. 36th Inf Div advances 65 miles n. of Rome. U-boat U-490 is sunk in the South Atlantic by U.S. carrier Croatan and her group, entire German crew is captured.
June 12First V-1 (rocket) fired. Senate passes a modified “GI Bill” costing an estimated $3 to 6.5 billion. The third wave of U.S. Army divisions are largely ashore on Normandy. U.S. soldiers secure Carentan, France. U.S. naval aircraft sink 16 Japanese ships off the Mariana Islands.
June 13A V-2 Rocket prematurely is launched by Germans, hitting countryside n. of Kalmar, Sweden. British government purchases wreckage. Part of U.S. 1st Army drives to Cherbourg. 101st and 2nd Armor Divisions heroically defend Carentz and Carentan-Périers highway. Liberty ships operate from the port of Rome. Just n. of Borneo, a Japanese naval armada pulls out of the heavily guarded port of Tawi Tawi, including 4 battleships and 6 prized carriers, for a “decisive naval battle” with the U.S. Vilno is liberated, becoming the second European capital to be free.
June 15Invasion fleet commanded by Admiral Raymond A. Spruance strikes at the Marianas, 1,350 miles from Tokyo and 5,000 miles from San Francisco. A colossal number of ships including 67 destroyers, 22 cruisers, seven new battleships--each named after a state: Indiana, Iowa, Massachusetts, New Jersey, North Carolina, South Dakota, and the Washington, protecting valuable troop transports that carried U.S. Marines from the 1st Brigade, the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Marine Divisions plus the 27th Infantry Division; 162,000 Americans in all. All further protected by a dozen baby flattops plus 8 light class carriers: Belleau Wood, Cabot, Cowpens, Langley, Monterrey, Princeton, San Jacinto PLUS the pride of the Pacific Fleet 7 heavy “Essex” class carriers: Bunker Hill, Enterprise, Essex, Hornet (II), Lexington (II), Wasp (II) and the Yorktown. By dusk, 20,000 Americans were on Saipan Is, Marianas. B-29’s strike Yawatta Imperial Works. German V-1 terror campaign begins; in first 24-hours 244 are launched. Jeep carrier Solomons sinks U-860 in South Atlantic.
June17Hitler refuses demand by Gen. Rommel to evacuate the peninsula of Cherbourg. Free French troops land on Elba. Adm. Spruance receives report via submarine Cavalla, 15 or more enemy ships sighted some 780 miles west of Saipan.
June 18U.S. reach Barneville. Free French troops liberate Radicofani, dominating Rome-Florence road.
June 19U.S. soldiers secure Bricquebec. “Turkey Shoot” the aircraft battle over the Marianas begins.
June 201,361 bombers and 729 escorts of the U.S. 8th A.F. attack oil targets in Hamburg-Harburg-Ostermoor-Misburg-Politz-Magdeburg, the mission is very successful; 48 heavies downed. All German Air Forces placed under control of Albert Speer. In the air Battle of the Philippine Sea, Japanese Navy looses 3 aircraft carriers and 480 aircraft; U.S. looses 23 aircraft. Cherbourg is besieged. British fly jet fighter (Meteor) to intercept German V-1’s over London. Valonges is liberated by U.S. troops.
June 21U.S. 8th A.F. devastates Berlin.
June 22Operation Zebra: B-17s make special drop of 2,077 containers of arms and supplies to FFI (French Resistance). Luftwaffe inflicts a surprise raid on First U.S. shuttle-bombing airbase, (Ukraine from U.K.) resulting in 47 aircraft destroyed and 29 damaged. Cherbourg is bombed by 1000 bombers. F.D.R. signs the “GI Bill” into law.
June 23U.S. Hellcats and Helldivers bomb Iwo Jima; loose 5; 66 Japanese aircraft destroyed.
June 24In the vicinity of the Azores, 2,564 ton Japanese sub I-52 is sunk by carrier aircraft of Bogue. Soviet summer offensive begins. First C-46 supply transports land on Saipan.
June 26U.S. 8th A.F. bombs oil plant at Drohobyez, Poland from its base in the USSR and flies to Italy; the 8th remains in Italy long enough to fly a mission with the 15th A.F. over Italy.
June 27As of date, 31 Allied air squadrons are operating from the Normandy-beach areas.
Port of Cherbourg is captured.
Ingrid Bergman and Humphrey Bogart were in their prime in the WW II years, stars of Casablanca.
June 28Thomas Dewey and John Bricker acquire the nominations for President and Vice-President at the Republican convention held in Chicago. Second White Russian troops take Mogilev, just outside Minsk.
June 29American Red Cross announces development of a serum to prevent measles. Generals Rommel and von Rundstedt propose a secret withdrawal from Normandy, Hitler refuses.
June 30Roosevelt signs the congressional resolution granting the Philippines independence as soon as the Japanese are ejected. A total of 452,450 Allied troops have come ashore at Normandy. A total of 570 ships and 180 troop transports have reached Normandy assault area in supply convoys by this date. 101st Airborne relieves 4th Inf at Cherbourg.
July 2Budapest bombed by 712 U.S. heavies. Von Rundstedt resigns command of German forces in France. Ensign Frederick L. Moore from the carrier Wake Island sinks U-543 in S. Atlantic at night.
July 3Russians capture Minsk.
July 5The millionth Allied soldier disembarks on French soil.
General Eisenhower at the Front.
July 7The last wildest, largest Banzai charge ever recorded on earth took place on Saipan Is complete with flashing Samurai swords; over 2,300 Japanese met their death. U.S. forces cross the River Vire, seven miles n.w. from St. Lô. Over 600,000 tons of supplies have been landed with 171,000 vehicles since D-Day; German opposition still formidable.
July 8Hitler issues secret directive that Allies will try to invade the Pas-de-Calais area.
July 9Saipan is declared secure.
July 13German resistance around Brody, Ukraine falls; 17,000 Germans are captured, 25,000 killed. Vilna taken by Soviets.
July 14Operation CADILLAC: B-17’s drop 2,491 containers of arms and supplies to aid FFI in central and southern France.
July 15Six hundred and seven bombers of the U.S. 15th A.F. plaster Ploesti, with 1,526 tons.
July 17Russians cross Bug River. U.S. 15th A.F. bombs rail targets in France. Gen. Rommel injured by Allied aircraft.
July 18U.S. troops of the 29th capture Saint Lô.
July 19U.S. forces secure port at Livorno, (Leghorn) Italy. Variety reports the most popular songs are: (1) “I’ll be Seeing You” (2) “Long Ago and Far Away” (3) “Amor.”
July 20Attempt on Hitler’s life fails. U.S. 15th A.F. destroys 950 jet aircraft in Friedrichshafen.
July 21U.S. 3rd Marine Division and First Brigade invade the rocky island of Guam; at night a fierce Banzai charge counterattacks U.S. forces and is repelled.
July 22Ploesti bombed by U.S. 15th A.F., of 495 aircraft 24 are lost. 76 Lightnings and 58 Mustangs of 15th A.F. succeed in shuttle mission to USSR, destroying 56 enemy aircraft in Rumania.
July 25American offensive operation “Cobra” takes troops out from the confining sector of Normandy. As of date, 12 U.S. 9th A.F. groups are on French soil. Reminiscent of Saipan, fierce Banzai charge against Marines on Guam, in the night--an estimated 3,500 Japanese were killed. U.S. Marines from the 2nd and 4th Marine Divisions invade Tinian Island; the U.S. lost 394 killed and 1,961 wounded; the Japanese lost over eight thousand when it was finally secured a week later. Some 9,000 Japanese civilians chose to surrender. Remember that in regards the Pacific, due to the international dateline, the actual Pacific event was the date earlier. ie while, for example, Operation Cobra took place on July 25, Tinian was already invaded, on July 24 European time.
July 26U.S. 15th A.F. fighters leave Soviet Union destroying 20 enemy aircraft over Bucharest. Nisei Americans of U.S. 5th Army make contact with German units between Suvereto and Campiglia.
July 27A fierce typhoon whips into the Mariana islands.
July 28U.S. 8th A.F. conducts a highly successful pinpoint attack on oil target at Merseburg-Leuna. First objective in “Cobra” attained as Coutances, France liberated. First time U.S. pilots encounter German rockets.
July 30Avranches, France, is liberated by U.S. 1st Army. U.S. troops take Sansapor Island.
July 31Approximately 10,000 lend-lease (U.S. built) aircraft have been sent to USSR since October of 1941.
Aug 1Patton’s Third Army becomes operational and leads the Allied breakout into central France. Patriotic forces hoping to free Warsaw, the capital, start an uprising as Soviet troops begin approaching the city.
Aug 2RAF begins night-supply help to Warsaw. Soviet A.F. daylight support over Warsaw mysteriously disappears. Radio Berlin admits Rommel is hurt. U-804 torpedoes U.S. destroyer escort Fiske in South Atlantic.
Aug 3-4U.S. 3rd Army spearhead liberates Rennes. Intensive V-1 attack on southern England lasts a record 14 hours; ten hospitals are struck. Allies reach Florence.
Aug 4Electrostatic Plant for manufacturing hydrogen peroxide in Peenemunde bombarded by 221 Flying Fortresses of 8th A.F. Heinkel Flugzugwerke, Rostok, hit by 146 bombers of 8th A.F. More Lightnings (P-38s) land on “Mother Russia.” British jet makes successful combat debut against V-1, as it tips the rocket into the sea with wing. Army and Marines link up on Guam.
Aug 6Patton’s troops reach Saint Brieuc. Berlin and varying oil refineries in Hamburg and Harburg bombed by 999 bombers of U.S. 8th A.F. Harvard University discloses that Comdr. Howard Aiken in collaboration with IBM has developed an automatic calculator computer; “Super Brain”.
Aug 7Patton’s troops rapidly advance to Brest; but garrison of 36,000 German hold out. Four German divisions are isolated on Brittany. German forces launch counterattack against U.S. 1st Army at Mortain in an attempt to halt the Allied breakout.
Aug 8Le Mans, major city of 75,000, is liberated by Patton’s 3rd Army.
Aug 9U.S. 15th A.F. bombs Hungary oil refineries. Canadian 1st Army is bogged down 8 miles n. of Falaise.
Aug 10Ploesti is bombed by 414 U.S. bombers. The U.S. 5th and Fr. 2nd Armored Divisions meet stiff resistance n.e. of Le Mans, loose some 40 tanks between them. Patriots in Warsaw able to control three-fifths of the city, plea for outside help indicating they face extinction unless assisted. Polish troops in Italy advance to the Cesano River. Standard Oil plant near Paris is bombed by 8th A.F. Organized enemy resistance ceases on the Marianas. Iwo Jima is bombed by U.S. 7th A.F. for the first time. Railwaymen of Paris go on strike. Superfortresses fly from secret base in Ceylon 4,000 miles to mine and bomb Palembang oil site in the Sumatran mtns; the longest nonstop mission of the war. Guam is declared free and secured, at a cost of almost 11,000 U.S. casualties. Several thousand native Chamorros are free.
Aug 11Angers liberated by U.S. 3rd Army.
Aug 12U.S. 3rd Army liberates Nantes. U.S. 1st Army, British 2nd Army, Canadian 1st Army and U.S. 3rd Army helps penn up Nazis around Chamois-Argentan-Lisieux, France. Pluto oil line semi-completed from Britain to France. The last Nazis are driven from Florence, Italy. Churchill asks Stalin to send aid to help Polish war-fighters in Warsaw; and is refused.
Aug 14Japanese propaganda radio broadcast, The Zero Hour, with Tokyo Rose, was clearly heard in San Francisco, California.
Aug 15Allied invasion of southern France involving 900 ships of four Allied navies, 300,000 invade between Toulon and Cannes, France.
Aug 16Dreux, Châteaudun and Orleans are liberated by U.S. 3rd Army. St. Malo is secured. General Bradley instructs Patton to go no further. First Nazi jet fighter is destroyed by a U.S. fighter pilot. 1,069 B-17’s hit oil and aircraft targets in central Germany. Washington D.C. orders Eisenhower to undertake supply-mission for Warsaw relief. Soviet spearheading forces halt seven miles n.e. of Warsaw. Le Muy, S. France, captured by U.S. paratroop forces.
Aug 17St. Tropez is liberated by U.S. 7th Army. Bradley releases Patton. Over 86,500 Allies have been landed over French Mediterranean beaches since D-Day.
Aug 18Patton’s spearhead division reach Seine River at Mantes-Gassicourt, France, meeting no resistance by the German. Cathedral city of Chartres liberated by another of Patton’s Third Army columns. Three hundred and 77 U.S. bombers hit Ploesti; 7 planes lost.
Aug 19Third Army’s 79th Div crosses the Seine in a rain downpour; the vital river is denied the German. U.S. Navy Hellcats first-time down Luftwaffe aircraft over France, near Toulouse. Sixty-five U.S. bombers strike Ploesti; 0 losses.
Aug 20U.S. 8th and 15th A.F.’s strike I.G. Farben and Auswitz. Six Avengers from U.S. carrier Bogue sink U-1229 in N. Atlantic; U-1229 was proceeding to Long Island, N.T., U.S.A., to drop off saboteurs. A new summer offensive by Soviet Army commences in the Jassy area of Rumania.
Aug 20-21Area around Falaise and Argentan surrounded, escape pocket for Germans is closed, trap nets 100,000 prisoners; 30,000 manage to escape. B-29’s meet enemy opposition for first time over Yawatta; 13 losses. U.S. 15th A.F. bombs oil refineries in Poland and Czechoslovakia in great depth, and becomes the least costliest day mission in 15th A.F. history; 4 losses out of 500. Churchill and Roosevelt address a joint appeal to Stalin to help the people of Warsaw. People of Paris rise to oust the Germans.
Aug 22Canadian Army crosses Touques River. Imperial Japan initiates compulsory labor draft for women and girls from 12 to 40. Polish troops clear all resistances of the Metauro River in Italy.
Aug 23Grenoble at the foot of the Alps is secured by 36th Inf Div. Marseille secured by Free French and Resistance forces. Third Army spearhead liberates the city of Fontainebleau.
Aug 24American troops enter Cannes. Spearhead of U.S. Third Army streams to Montargis. Weimar Armament Works is attacked by 129 8th A.F. bombers. 2000 U.S. bombers strike oil plants in central, western Germany and Czechoslovakia; missions are highly successful. All students in Nazi Germany mobilized for war work.
Aug 25Paris is liberated, becoming the third European capital to be liberated. U.S. 9th A.F. challenges Luftwaffe over Beauvais and Reims in fierce combat air duels, destroy 127 German aircraft, damage 33; the back of the Luftwaffe breaks over France. Third Army secures Troyes. 1,191 heavies of the U.S. 8th A.F. bomb factories in Germany including huge synthetic oil plant at Politz. Rumania declares war on Germany.
Aug 25-26 British motorized infantry troops begin to cross the Seine. U.S. 2nd Armor captures Elbeuf. Soviets reach Danube River.
Aug 26Gen. Charles deGaulle leads a ceremonial parade in newly-freed Paris.
Aug 27U.S. First Army cross the Marne river. 1,207 B-17’s turned back from Berlin due to weather. Operation Reunion starts, lasts until Sep 3, whereby 1,163 American flyers were flown out of Rumania in 56 B-17s converted into transports and rescued. The first 1944 daylight heavy bomber raid on Germany by RAF.
Aug 28U.S. Third Army liberates Epernay and Châlons-sur-Marne, 116 miles from Paris. Naval base at Toulon secured.
Aug 29British armor crosses Seine river at Vernon. Patton’s 3rd Army spearhead liberates Reims. U.S. 7th Army liberates Valence. Western Allies recognize Polish Home Army as a legal military force. Western Allies end diplomatic meeting at Dumbarton Oaks, first step in formation of the United Nations.
Aug 30U.S. 7th Army liberates Nice on the French Riviera. Start of 3-day strafing campaign by American P-51 pilots result in a record by 15th A.F. as over 200 enemy aircraft destroyed at Reghin, Debrecen, Kecskemet, and Grosswadein, the Eastern Front. First U.S. Army railway supply trains roll into Paris. Russian Army rolls into Ploesti.
Aug 31Patton’s spearheads reach the Meuse River, the last strategic river crossing before the German borders, and establish a bridgehead near the town of Verdun, famous site of WWI. Soviets sweep Bucharest, the fourth European capital to be liberated. British cross the Somme River.
Sep 1Philippine Islands are bombed for the first time since 1942, by 57 “Apache” 5th A.F. bombers. U.S. Army Communiqué announces that the number of prisoners taken in southern France campaign had amounted to over 55,000 German troops, with 35,000 captured by the FFI.
Sep 2Allied armor units from the Mediterranean make 34-mile advance in the Rhône Valley; as of date 190,565 troops, 41,534 vehicles and 219,205 tons of supplies have been put ashore through the French Riviera beaches. U.S. 1st Army enters Belgium for the first time, as 82nd Reconnaissance Battalion crosses border at 9:30 a.m., liberates Tournai. French forces liberate Lyons. U.S. 5th Army liberates Pisa, Italy.
Sep 3-4U.S. First Army closes Mons pocket, 25,000 enemy netted. British 8th Army suffers tremendous losses in Gemmano-Croce, Italy. U.S. 15th A.F. begins “Rat Week” knocking out bridges all along the Eastern Front.
Sep 3British Guards Armored Division liberates Brussels, capital of Belgium and the fifth European capital to be liberated. U.S. 8th A.F. Thunderbolt squadron led by Maj. Frederick Lefebre and Lt. E. Reinhart destroy a twenty-mile-long vehicle convoy, marking one of the largest in the war, retreating from east Belgium outside Louvain. U.S. 15th A.F. Communiqué reports destruction of 82 locos, 154 motor vehicles, 190 oil tankers, 110 box cars in Morava Valley, Yugoslavia.
Sep 4Helsinki is liberated, becoming the sixth European capital. German troops evacuate Finland. Antwerp reached by British 2nd Army. The last torpedo boats stationed in France and Belgium of the German Navy evacuate bases to the Netherlands. Japanese troops capture U.S. air-base in Lingling, China. Stars and Stripes reveals the break up of a large Sicilian counterfeiting ring in Rome.
Sep 6Two V-1 missiles fired at Paris, but fortunately both explode in mid-air.
Sep 7Soviet spearheads do not move into Warsaw, as the city fighting enters seventh week. Through the Polish Red Cross a short cease fire is obtained in Warsaw, several thousand civilians allowed to leave. U.S. 1st Army fights its way into Liège, Belgium.
Sep 7-8U.S. carrier planes destroy Japanese planes at Yap and Palau.
Sep 8-9U.S. 1st Army liberates Liège. Red Army enters Sofia, the eighth European capital to be liberated. The first supersonic V-2 Rockets blast London, England and Paris, France. Bulgaria declares war on Germany. Allies sink Italian liner Rex near Trieste, Italy.
Sep 10U.S. 1st Army secures small bridgehead across Moselle River and U.S. Third Army secures small bridgehead at Crévéchamps and Bayon. Third Army resupplied crosses the Meuse River, and liberates Luxembourg, the seventh European capital to be liberated. Churchill arrives in Canada secretly by the Queen Mary. Eisenhower makes a secret visit to Brussels.
Sep 11As of date 2,168,307 troops and 460,745 vehicles have landed through the Normandy beaches. Seven synthetic oil plants and two other targets hit by 1,145 8th A.F. bombers, and for the first time since May Luftwaffe rises in great strength. The start of the Quebec Conference by Roosevelt and Churchill. U.S. enters Germany, probes border just north of Trier near Stalzemberg.
Sep 11-12Night raid against the city of Darmstadt by RAF Bomber Command erases it from map, over 10,000 die in the resulting fire storm despite new computing bomb-aiming techniques.
Sep 13U.S. First Army crosses the Albert Canal. British troops cross the Meuse-Escaut Canal. French Navy enters Toulon harbor. Liberators completely destroy the IG Farben chemical plant near Ausertz. U.S. captures Roetgen, Germany.
Sep 14U.S. Army and Marines invade Peleliu Island. Red Air Force drops some supplies into Warsaw, without parachutes. Polish 1st Army and Soviet troops capture Praga, a Warsaw suburb. Worst storm since 1938 sweeps the Atlantic East Coast. Maastricht is the first Dutch city to be liberated.
Sep 15Nancy secured by U.S. 3rd Army. Americans invade Morotai. U.S. 1st Army breaks into Siegfried line near Aachen, Germany. Brazilian soldiers of the IV Corps, 5th Army enter the line in northern Italy, to advance through the mountain ridges of Monte Castello.
Sep 16Approximately 20,000 German troops traveled northeastward from the Biscayne Bay and surrender to the U.S. 83rd Inf Div near the Beaugency bridge on the Loire, s.w. of Orléans.
Sep 17Operation Market Garden commences in s. Holland, over 6,000 out of 10,000 Allied troops are captured by the time Market Garden ends. U.S. lands on Angaur Island.
Sep 18110 bombers of the 8th A.F. are allowed to drop 1,284 canisters of arms, food and medical supplies (by parachute) against strong wind over Warsaw, only 30% reaches Polish Home Army. Counterstrike by Hitler’s First Armythe most powerful of Germany’s Western Front once moreand Fifth Panzer Army is initiated against Patton’s troops at Lunéville, France, forming the start of the greatest tank battles the U.S. has witnessed in the ETO. Brest falls. Pluto oil system begins pumping oil to port of Cherbourg. Eisenhower establishes Allied Military Government for Germany; Nazi Party Law starts dissolving.
Sep 20British 8th Army enters San Marino. U.S. petitions Soviet authorities to continue U.S. air drop over Warsaw; denied.
Sep 21Fog lifts over Western Front, P-47’s support Patton by destroying and damaging sizable German armor formations in Juvelize-Arracourt. 15th A.F. B-24 Liberators destroy gigantic Baja railroad bridge across Danube, 90 miles s. of Budapest. San Marino is liberated, becoming the ninth European capital to be liberated. Excluding probable, 405 Imperial Army and Navy airplanes are destroyed in the Philippines by U.S. Navy airplanes. British 8th Army liberates Rimini, Italy.
Sep 22As of date over 380,000 Allied troops have landed through French Riviera. Boulogne secured by Canadian 1st Army. Tallin, Estonia, is liberated, becoming the tenth European capital liberated. XIX TAC of U.S. 9th A.F. destroy 120 vehicles and cut 21 R.R. lines.
Sep 23Allies sink Italian liner Taranto near La Spezia, Italy. Radio Tokyo reports Premier J. Laurel of the Philippines has declared war on the United States as a result of air attacks on the islands. Ulithi Atoll is secured by U.S. Army regiment; becomes a huge secret naval anchorage; O casualties but the daughter of King Ueg received mortal wound.
Sep 24Germans launch counterattack around Lunéville-Arracourt in extremely bad weather.
Sep 25Recounterattack mounted with reinforced German Ghost Division under cover of rainstorm, veteran U.S. 4th Armored Div holds around Lunéville. Final evacuation of Allies from Market-Garden. Warsaw situation, frantic and grave. Soviet troops surround and disarm Polish detachments serving with the Red Army, e. of the Vistula, Warsaw.
Sep 26394 B-17’s bombard Borgward tank and truck plants in Breman.
Sep 27Hitler recounterattacks again at Arracourt-Lunéville. The 445th Bomb Group suffers the greatest loss of any 8th A.F. unit in a single air mission: 25 are shot out of the sky, 5 more crash on landing. This means 300 Americans did not return to England.
Sep 29U.S. Third Army and XIX TAC 9th A.F. fight back counterattack under full power, Nazis forced to retreat from Lunéville sectors. U.S.S. Narwhal rescues 81 Allied prisoners in the Philippines.
Sep 30Japanese-Americans of the 442nd RCT disembark on the 2,600 years old port of Marseille, France and join the U.S. Seventh Army. Balikpapen “Ploesti of the East Indies” first time bombed. Mission Bay sinks U-1062, the last U-boat sunk in the Atlantic by a U.S. carrier battle group.
Oct 1Battle of Aachen starts. Calais liberated by Canadians.
Oct 2Warsaw resistance ends, total of 150,000-200,000 Polish Resistance persons died.
Oct 3U.S. 8th A.F. visits motor vehicles plant at Gaggenau, and knocks it out for two months.
Oct 4Large German counterattack around Aachen sector halted by U.S. 1st Army.
Oct 5Pluto to Cherbourg abandoned.
Oct 6German recounterstrikes with reserves at Aachen but is halted by U.S. 1st Army. Dr. Ernest Charlton, GE scientist, announces X-ray machine that can take pictures through a foot of steel has been perfected. 8th A.F. deals a death blow on Arado aircraft assembly plant at Neubrandenburg. First Air Force Night fighters land on Chengtu, China.
Oct 7Flying Fortresses find enemy resistance surprising over Germany, in fierce air combat the 8th A.F. looses forty-one aircraft; Germany over 20.
Oct 9Churchill and Stalin meet in Moscow.
Oct 1024-hour surrender ultimatum sent to Aachen, Hitler refuses. U.S. Navy carrier strike force destroy 93 airplanes and 12 ships of more than 500 tons near Manila. The first Black-American armored unit to battle in the ETO (the 761st) arrives in France.
Oct 11Heavy air and artillery bombardment starts at Aachen.
Oct 12U.S. 3rd Fleet delivers 1,378 aircraft attack on the installations on Formosa, 396 enemy aircraft and 27 ships destroyed; almost 50 U.S. planes are shot down. From China, first B-29’s land on Guam. Port of Boulogne opens for service.
Oct 13Riga becomes the eleventh European capital liberated.
Oct 14103 B-29’s strike Okayama; 0 losses, 50 Japanese airplanes destroyed. Athens becomes the twelfth European capital liberated.
Oct 16U.S. Liberators and Mitchells raid Japanese shipping in Hong Kong Harbor and Mindanao Harbor.
Oct 17-21Allied aircraft shoot down over 90 aircraft in air over the Philippines.
Oct 18Russians cross border into Czechoslovakia.
Oct 19Nazis evacuate Belgrade. Red Army crosses eastern German border. Peliliu Island declared secured. German Army in Greece and Yugoslavia evacuate to avoid a total cut-off by Russian advance.
Oct 20After a two-day naval bombardment, Leyte Is. Philippines, invaded by 132,000 U.S. troops and 1,528 Marines. Two GI's from the 24th Inf Div raise the U.S. and Philippine flags on the beach around 10 a.m. Invasion convoy consisted of 420 transports, supported by a 700 ship armada. Total invasion force about 425,000 men. Belgrade becomes the thirteenth European capital liberated.
Oct 21Aachen, Germany, a city where 32 medieval kings and and emperors were crowned, captured by U.S. 1st Army. The U.S. casualty list was over the 7,000 mark, with a loss of 200 tanks; over 10,000 prisoners taken. Angaur Island secured; 45 prisoners taken; 1300 Japanese refused to surrender. Cruiser Australia is first victim of a Kamikaze.
Oct 22U.S. 6th Army liberates capital of Leyte.
Oct 24U.S. 8th A.F. Mustangs and Thunderbolts strike the Brunswick-Hannover area, destroy 61 locos and 346 railroad cars. U.S. Census Bureau reports that infant deaths at Home for 1943 were 118,484, an increase of some 5,000 over 1942.
Oct 25The 442nd, composed of Japanese-Americans, enter the line stretched some 90 miles across the Vosges Mountains. Soviet forces enter Kirkenes, Norway, beginning limited offensive in Norway.
Oct 26Greatest sea battle in history ceases known as the Battle of Leyte Gulf; the Japanese loose 3 battleships, 4 carriers, 10 cruisers, and myriad other ships. The U.S. looses six ships, including the escort carriers Gambier Bay and the St Lô.
Oct 27Army Air Force takes over air support missions for Leyte from Navy carriers.
Oct 28Russo-Bulgarian armistice signed; British and American plenipotentiaries are excluded. All Bulgarian troops come under Soviet High Command. U.S. 13th A.F. destroys 23 Japanese planes at Puerto Princesa, Palawan Island.
Oct 29Russian operations in the far north ends. While U.S.S. Intrepid’s aircraft bomb Manila, she falls victim to a Kamikaze.
Oct 30One hundred miles from Samar, Kamikazes crash on the USS Franklin, 56 killed, 60 wounded, crash on the USS Belleau Wood, 92 dead or missing. Despite mountainous natural barriers and hand-to-hand combat, near St Die, Japanese-American doughfoots of the 442nd RCT make contact, 3 miles behind the lines, with the Lost Battalion of the 141st Regiment of the 36th Infantry Div which had been encircled and cut-off by the Germans.
Nov 1Pluto extension into Boulogne begins service. (Special oil pipeline.) Crack Japanese “the Imperial Victory Division” lands on Ormoc Bay against no major U.S. or Filipino opposition. Bombed by Japanese Air Force (JAF) 3 U.S. destroyers are sunk in San Pedro Bay, Leyte, with numerous ships damaged. None of the U.S. carriers are nearby. First Superfortress flies over Tokyo, at 32,00 ft, for 14 hours and brings back first target photographs.
Nov 2Luftwaffe springs a surprise trap on 8th A.F. over Merseburg-Leuna as 400 interceptors (largest since before D-Day) contest echelon patterns; U.S. loose 46 heavy bombers, 28 fighters; Luftwaffe 183. Night-time air raid by JAF damages 10 and destroys 2 of 20 P-38’s on Tacloban air strip of MacArthur’s Army Air Force.
Nov 3Canadians clear all resistance in Breskens, capture some 12,500 prisoners.
Nov 3-15 American P-38’s intercept JAF near Tacloban, and knock off 17 intruders trying to reach for big Allied convoy off Leyte. Antiaircraft cruiser Reno is torpedoed 700 miles n.w. of Ulithi.
Nov 5U.S. aircraft carriers strike north of Manila, USS Hornet alone destroys 133 aircraft on ground, 29 interceptors in the air; U.S. loose 25. Kamikaze slams into USS Lexington; 42 fall dead, 5 are disintegrated, 127 wounded. 500 Liberators of the 15th A.F. bomb crude-oil refinery at Floridsdorf with very good success. 76 B-29’s fly nearly four thousand miles roundtrip to bomb Singapore’s King George VI Graving Docks with excellent results; docks knocked out for 3 months. British troops occupy Salonika, Greece.
Nov 6F.D.R. re-elected to fourth term.
Nov 7U.S. Navy reports 249 enemy aircraft destroyed in air and ground near Manila.
Nov 8Caught off guard outside Metz, U.S. Third Army begins ground offensive toward the Saar.
Nov 98th A.F. P-51’s destroy 61 locomotives and 227 railroad cars near Saarbrucken.
Nov 10British government reveals publicly that London has fallen to V-2 attack. Heavy land fighting at Dagami, Leyte.
Nov 12RAF Lancasters sink battleship Tirpitz (42,000 tons) off Tromso Harbor in northern Norway. Famous B-29 “Tokyo Rose” makes secret 1st reconnaissance flight over Tokyo.
Nov 16U.S. 1st and 9th Armies open main breakthrough from the West into Roer Plain, after 80 med bombers and 1,208 B-17s and B-24's escorted byy 600 fighters hammer the area Duren, Eschweiler, Langerwehe; little enemy air opposition but heavy ground opposition. U.S. 7th Army and Fr. 1st Army push into Belfort Gap in a snowstorm.
Nov 17U.S. fleet sub Spadefish torpedoes and sinks fleet carrier Shinyo in China Sea.
Nov 19In intense tactical air operations, over the area Koblenz-Trier-Schnee, in 3 clear days 842 motor transport, 162 locos and 1,096 R.R. cars are damaged/destroyed. German POW’S exceed 11,000 in fortress town Metz sector. French Commandos d’Afrique scale fortress of Salbert in Belfort.
Nov 20The 6th War Bond Drive commenced in America.
Nov 21U.S. submarine Sealion torpedoes battleship Kongo becoming the only submarine to sink a battleship.
Nov 22U.S. troops reach Roer river. British troops reach Maas river. Patton crosses the Saar. St.-Dié, France, liberated by U.S. 103rd Inf Div; in 1507 the Cosmographiae Introductio was published in St-Dié where the word “America” premiered. Town of Metz is captured by U.S. Third Army.
Nov 23Strasbourg liberated. The Canadian Government issues an order-in-council policy making 16,000 draftees available for overseas service, ending (war-) voluntary enlistment.
Nov 24U.S. casualties through Nov 7 are reported: 528,795, including 162,860 killed. Japanese troops capture Nanning, China. In the first U.S. mission over Tokyo since Doolittle, 88 B-29’s from Marianas bomb the capital and selected targets; 2 lost in combat and one falls in the Pacific with crew rescued; mission unsuccessful.
Nov 25A V-2 hits crowded Woolworth store in Deptford, England. U.S. pilots from the Ticonderoga sink two Japanese heavy cruisers off the Philippines. Japanese pilots attack U.S. carriers: two airplanes crash on the flight deck of the Intrepid 60 miles off Pt. Dijohaan, Luzon, and create a raging inferno that lasts three hours; 69 men die; Kamikazees crash on the Independence and Cabot, sustain over casualties; Kamikaze crashes onto portside of the Essex, creating a giant explosion; fully-armed Hellcats on deck are ripped apart; 15 are killed and 44 wounded; miraculously fires extinguished in 30 mins. A Kamikaze barely misses the carrier Hancock.
Nov 26B-29’s make second raid over Tokyo; mission “stinks”.
Nov 27First V-2 blasts Antwerp, Holland. Sec of State Cordell Hull resigns because of ill-health. Luftwaffe concentrates on 8th A.F. bombers with over 700 interceptorsthis becomes the last big surprise; 0 bombers fall, 11 P-51 downed; 98 enemy aircraft downed. Battleship Colorado damaged by Kamikaze. Cruiser St Louis knifed by two Kamikazees. U.S. Marines mop up the last Japanese die-hards on Peleliu. Japanese launch initial air strike by night against U.S. bases on the Marianas; 3 B-29’s destroyed. U-boat 1230 lands Nazi spies by night at Hancock Point, Maine, but FBI is tipped by a 16-year old Boy Scout H. Hodgkins, and saboteurs are later arrested in N.Y. with a secret radio transmitter and over $100,000 in diamonds.
Nov 28The first Allied cargo ship crosses the Scheldt estuary and reaches the semi-demolished port at Antwerp, a Canadian vessel Fort Cataraqui. U.S. Third Army moves into the Saar basin. Fifty carloads of flour and 150 tons of frozen beef are distributed to civilian populace of Metz.
Nov 29U.S. First Army captures town of Huertgen. Battleship Maryland sustains severe damage by single Kamikaze.
Nov 30Air raid over Zeitz cost the 8th A.F. the greatest loss of aircraft due to flak defenses. Two Chinese divisions ordered withdrawn from Burma to defend Kumming, China.
Dec 1Japanese troops on Leyte run out of food supplies. Siege of Budapest begins.
Dec 2Navy PBY’s rescue 101 survivors out of Ormoc Bay’s U.S. disaster. East African troops advance in the Chindwin River, Burma.
Dec 3U.S. troops of MacArthur’s 6th Army turn back enemy tank attack on roadblock outside Limon, Leyte. German troops turn back RAF Bomber Command trying to bomb for the first time Roer River Dams.
Dec 4Norwegian workers at Oslo destroy all of SKF ball-bearing plant by sabotage. Marine night fighters arrive at Tacloban. B-29’s raid Tokyo and encounter 180 mph winds; 12 lost or damaged. RAF Bomber Command raids Roer River Dams with medium success.
Dec 7U.S.M.C. aircraft smash Japanese convoy bound for Ormoc; 7 vessels are sunk. Japanese air attack Saipan, damage 23 parked B-29’s and destroy 3. 15,000 U.S. troops make an amphibious assault four miles s. of Ormoc Town, 1 casualty. Hours later, Japanese suicide-bombers attack the Allied convoy; 4 landing ships abandoned, 2 destroyers sunk, including the Ward which on December 7, 1941, had sunk a midget-sub trying to sneak into Pearl Harbor; over 44 Japanese bombers destroyed.
Dec 9Black-out regulations in Britain are partially lifted.
Dec 10U.S. 6th Army captures main Japanese supply port on Ormoc against heavy opposition. Kamikaze sinks a destroyer protecting supply convoy for Ormoc, but Allied convoy gets through.
Dec 11U.S. 15th A.F. bombards synthetic oil refineries at Moosebierbaum. RAF Bomber Command unsuccessful in wiping out the Roer River Dams.
Dec 12Blechhammer oil target bombed by B-24’s. Civilians reported evacuating Tokyo as B-29’s appear over that capital.
Dec 14U.S. carrier aircraft begin 3-day “blanket” on north Philippines. British troops begin advance in western Burma.
Dec 15U.S. and Australia land on San Jose, Mindoro, 226 miles south of Manila.
Dec 16Battle of the Bulge, Ardennes Forest begins; Belgium and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg comprise the center of the battle.
Dec 17Mighty typhoon strikes U.S. fleet in Philippine Sea and damages over 20 vessels. German paratroopers drop in northern Ardennes, infiltrate and block roads in Battle of the Bulge. German Tigers rupture U.S. lines in Belgium.
Dec 18Colossal air raid on Hankow; fires burn for three days.
Dec 19U.S. First Army retakes Stavelot, Belgium, cutting enemy supply line north of St. Vith.
Dec 20MacArthur claims that the Allies have won the battle for Ormoc.
Dec 21Nineteen thousand Americans at Bastogne are surrounded by a force of 45,000 Germans.
Dec 22Bastogne still holds on. American GI's launch a fierce counterattack in the snow and fog. Patton's Third Army was responsible for the operation.
Dec 23U.S. government bans horse racing, tightens food rationing. A C-47 airlift of 41 aircraft drop supplies, medicine and ammunition over Bastogne. Relief columns of Patton are halted along the Arlon-Bastogne and Neufchateau roads.
Dec 24Christmas Eve. Meat is rationed once more. American air forces launch incredible 1884 Heavies and 813 P-51s across the Belgium-German frontier.
Dec 25Fighter-bombers claim 813 Nazi motor vehicles and 99 armored vehicles as weather temporarily clears over Belgium-German border.
Dec 26Patton’s relief reaches through to Bastogne. First Army supported by Third Army and five U.S. fighter-bomber groups knock out 690 motor vehicles, 25 planes, 90 tanks and armored vehicles, 44 gun positions, 143 rail cars, 2 bridges, and cut 5 highways.
Dec 28Motion picture Herald announces that Bing Crosby was the top 1944 box-office attraction.
Dec 29The Arlon-Bastogne highway is opened.
Dec 30U.S. carriers Ticonderoga, Hancock, Lexington, and Independence limp out of Ulithi Atoll.
Dec 31Polish Provisional Govt. is established by Moscow, Polish leaders in London protest unavailingly. U.S. 8th Army units start to replace U.S. 6th Army units on Leyte Island.
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“We will train in any kind of weather to reach our objective in Normandy, France!”